Cranioplasty refers to the bone defect in the skull that has been left behind after a previous operation or injury. This generally involves lifting of the scalp and restoring the contour of the skull with the original piece of the skull or a custom contoured graft made from materials like titanium, synthetic bone substitute, or acrylic. Under general anesthesia, the surgeons get optimal access to the bone defect. The area of the incision is then shaved and prepared with antiseptic. Under a local anesthetic, the skin of the scalp is carefully cut and separated into layers. Carefully, the bone or implant is placed properly in the defect and secured with screws and plates.