Arteriovenous fistula refers to an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein. This connection or passageway can be congenital, surgically created for hemodialysis treatments, or acquired due to pathologic processes like trauma or erosion of an arterial aneurysm. An Arteriovenous shunt is used to create a higher blood flow by artificially connecting a vein and the artery. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia generally in the forearm or upper arm. If it is not possible to make a direct connection, synthetic connections are used to set the shunt.
[a]add indications of splenectomy
1)Ruptured spleen due to severe abdominal injury,
2) Enlarged spleen,
3)Blood disorders that may be treated with splenectomy- idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, polycythemia vera , thalassemia,
4) Cancers that may be treated with splenectomy include chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and hairy cell leukemia.
5) inflammation (abscess) in your spleen
6) cysts or tumors inside the spleen
(rephrase and convert it in pragraph form)